certbot instructions

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To use Certbot, you'll need...

A laptop
comfort with the
command line
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A command line is a way of interacting with a computer by typing text-based commands to it and receiving text-based replies. Certbot is run from a command-line interface, usually on a Unix-like server. In order to use Certbot for most purposes, you’ll need to be able to install and run it on the command line of your web server, which is usually accessed over SSH.

A command line is a way of interacting with a computer by typing text-based commands to it and receiving text-based replies. Certbot is run from a command-line interface, usually on a Unix-like server. In order to use Certbot for most purposes, you’ll need to be able to install and run it on the command line of your web server, which is usually accessed over SSH.

From our Certbot Glossary
command line
Command Line

A command line is a way of interacting with a computer by typing text-based commands to it and receiving text-based replies. Certbot is run from a command-line interface, usually on a Unix-like server. In order to use Certbot for most purposes, you’ll need to be able to install and run it on the command line of your web server, which is usually accessed over SSH.

From our Certbot Glossary
Web browser showing an HTTP site
...and an
HTTP website
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HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the traditional, but insecure, method for web browsers to request the content of web pages and other online resources from web servers. It is an Internet standard and normally used with TCP port 80. Almost all websites in the world support HTTP, but websites that have been configured with Certbot or some other method of setting up HTTPS may automatically redirect users from the HTTP version of the site to the HTTPS version.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the traditional, but insecure, method for web browsers to request the content of web pages and other online resources from web servers. It is an Internet standard and normally used with TCP port 80. Almost all websites in the world support HTTP, but websites that have been configured with Certbot or some other method of setting up HTTPS may automatically redirect users from the HTTP version of the site to the HTTPS version.

From our Certbot Glossary
HTTP website
HTTP

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the traditional, but insecure, method for web browsers to request the content of web pages and other online resources from web servers. It is an Internet standard and normally used with TCP port 80. Almost all websites in the world support HTTP, but websites that have been configured with Certbot or some other method of setting up HTTPS may automatically redirect users from the HTTP version of the site to the HTTPS version.

From our Certbot Glossary

that is
already online
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Certbot is usually meant to be used to switch an existing HTTP site to work in HTTPS (and, afterward, to continue renewing the site’s HTTPS certificates whenever necessary). Some Certbot documentation assumes or recommends that you have a working web site that can already be accessed using HTTP on port 80. That means, for example, that if you use a web browser to go to your domain using http://, your web server answers and some kind of content comes up (even if it’s just a default welcome page rather than the final version of your site). Some methods of using Certbot have this as a prerequisite, so you’ll have a smoother experience if you already have a site set up with HTTP. (If your site can’t be accessed this way as a matter of policy, you’ll probably need to use DNS validation in order to get a certificate with Certbot.)

Certbot is usually meant to be used to switch an existing HTTP site to work in HTTPS (and, afterward, to continue renewing the site’s HTTPS certificates whenever necessary). Some Certbot documentation assumes or recommends that you have a working web site that can already be accessed using HTTP on port 80. That means, for example, that if you use a web browser to go to your domain using http://, your web server answers and some kind of content comes up (even if it’s just a default welcome page rather than the final version of your site). Some methods of using...

From our Certbot Glossary
already online
Website That’s Already Online

Certbot is usually meant to be used to switch an existing HTTP site to work in HTTPS (and, afterward, to continue renewing the site’s HTTPS certificates whenever necessary). Some Certbot documentation assumes or recommends that you have a working web site that can already be accessed using HTTP on port 80. That means, for example, that if you use a web browser to go to your domain using http://, your web server answers and some kind of content comes up (even if it’s just a default welcome page rather than the final version of your site). Some methods of using Certbot have this as a prerequisite, so you’ll have a smoother experience if you already have a site set up with HTTP. (If your site can’t be accessed this way as a matter of policy, you’ll probably need to use DNS validation in order to get a certificate with Certbot.)

From our Certbot Glossary

with an open
port 80
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Different Internet services are distinguished by using different TCP port numbers. Unencrypted HTTP normally uses TCP port 80, while encrypted HTTPS normally uses TCP port 443. To use certbot –webroot, certbot –apache, or certbot –nginx, you should have an existing HTTP website that’s already online hosted on the server where you’re going to use Certbot. This site should be available to the rest of the Internet on port 80. To use certbot –standalone, you don’t need an existing site, but you have to make sure connections to port 80 on your server are not blocked by a firewall, including a firewall that may be run by your Internet service provider or web hosting provider. Please check with your ISP or hosting provider if you’re not sure. (Using DNS validation does not require Let’s Encrypt to make any inbound connection to your server, so with this method in particular it’s not necessary to have an existing HTTP website or the ability to receive connections on port 80.)

Different Internet services are distinguished by using different TCP port numbers. Unencrypted HTTP normally uses TCP port 80, while encrypted HTTPS normally uses TCP port 443. To use certbot –webroot, certbot –apache, or certbot –nginx, you should have an existing HTTP website that’s already online hosted on the server where you’re going to use Certbot. This site should be available to the rest of the Internet on port 80. To use certbot –standalone, you don’t need an existing site, but you have to make sure connections to port 80 on your server are not blocked by a firewall, including a...

From our Certbot Glossary
port 80
Port 80

Different Internet services are distinguished by using different TCP port numbers. Unencrypted HTTP normally uses TCP port 80, while encrypted HTTPS normally uses TCP port 443. To use certbot –webroot, certbot –apache, or certbot –nginx, you should have an existing HTTP website that’s already online hosted on the server where you’re going to use Certbot. This site should be available to the rest of the Internet on port 80. To use certbot –standalone, you don’t need an existing site, but you have to make sure connections to port 80 on your server are not blocked by a firewall, including a firewall that may be run by your Internet service provider or web hosting provider. Please check with your ISP or hosting provider if you’re not sure. (Using DNS validation does not require Let’s Encrypt to make any inbound connection to your server, so with this method in particular it’s not necessary to have an existing HTTP website or the ability to receive connections on port 80.)

From our Certbot Glossary
A sever
...which is hosted on a
server
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A server is a computer on the Internet that provides a service, like a web site or an email service. Most web site owners pay a hosting provider for the use of a server located in a data center and administered over the Internet. This might be a physical dedicated server, a virtual private server (VPS), or a shared server. Other servers provide other parts of the Internet infrastructure, such as DNS servers.

A server is a computer on the Internet that provides a service, like a web site or an email service. Most web site owners pay a hosting provider for the use of a server located in a data center and administered over the Internet. This might be a physical dedicated server, a virtual private server (VPS), or a shared server. Other servers provide other parts of the Internet infrastructure, such as DNS servers.

From our Certbot Glossary
server
Server

A server is a computer on the Internet that provides a service, like a web site or an email service. Most web site owners pay a hosting provider for the use of a server located in a data center and administered over the Internet. This might be a physical dedicated server, a virtual private server (VPS), or a shared server. Other servers provide other parts of the Internet infrastructure, such as DNS servers.

From our Certbot Glossary

which you can access via
SSH
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SSH

SSH (which stands for “secure shell”) is a technology for connecting to a remote server and accessing a command line on that server, often in order to administer it. The administrator of a server can grant SSH access to others, and can also use SSH access directly in order to administer the server remotely. SSH is usually used to access servers running Unix-like operating systems, but your own computer doesn’t have to be running Unix in order to use SSH. You normally use SSH from your computer’s command line in a terminal by typing a command such as ssh username@example.com, especially if your own computer runs Linux or macOS. After logging in, you’ll have access to the server’s command line. If you use Windows on your computer, you might also use a dedicated SSH application such as PuTTY. Most Certbot users run Certbot from a command prompt on a remote server over SSH.

SSH (which stands for “secure shell”) is a technology for connecting to a remote server and accessing a command line on that server, often in order to administer it. The administrator of a server can grant SSH access to others, and can also use SSH access directly in order to administer the server remotely. SSH is usually used to access servers running Unix-like operating systems, but your own computer doesn’t have to be running Unix in order to use SSH. You normally use SSH from your computer’s command line in a terminal by typing a command such as ssh username@example.com,...

From our Certbot Glossary
SSH
SSH

SSH (which stands for “secure shell”) is a technology for connecting to a remote server and accessing a command line on that server, often in order to administer it. The administrator of a server can grant SSH access to others, and can also use SSH access directly in order to administer the server remotely. SSH is usually used to access servers running Unix-like operating systems, but your own computer doesn’t have to be running Unix in order to use SSH. You normally use SSH from your computer’s command line in a terminal by typing a command such as ssh username@example.com, especially if your own computer runs Linux or macOS. After logging in, you’ll have access to the server’s command line. If you use Windows on your computer, you might also use a dedicated SSH application such as PuTTY. Most Certbot users run Certbot from a command prompt on a remote server over SSH.

From our Certbot Glossary

with the ability to
sudo
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Sudo is the most common command on Unix-like operating systems to run a specific command as root (the system administrator). If you’re logged in to your server as a user other than root, you’ll likely need to put sudo before your Certbot commands so that they run as root (for example, sudo certbot instead of just certbot), especially if you’re using Certbot’s integration with a web server like Apache or Nginx. (The certbot-auto script automatically runs sudo if it’s necessary and you didn’t specify it.)

Sudo is the most common command on Unix-like operating systems to run a specific command as root (the system administrator). If you’re logged in to your server as a user other than root, you’ll likely need to put sudo before your Certbot commands so that they run as root (for example, sudo certbot instead of just certbot), especially if you’re using Certbot’s integration with a web server like Apache or Nginx. (The certbot-auto script automatically runs sudo if it’s necessary and you didn’t specify it.)

From our Certbot Glossary
sudo
sudo

Sudo is the most common command on Unix-like operating systems to run a specific command as root (the system administrator). If you’re logged in to your server as a user other than root, you’ll likely need to put sudo before your Certbot commands so that they run as root (for example, sudo certbot instead of just certbot), especially if you’re using Certbot’s integration with a web server like Apache or Nginx. (The certbot-auto script automatically runs sudo if it’s necessary and you didn’t specify it.)

From our Certbot Glossary

optional if you want a
wildcard cert
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A wildcard certificate is a certificate that covers one or more names starting with *. and that will be accepted by a web browser for any subdomain name with any label in place of the * character. For example, a certificate for *.example.com will be valid for www.example.com, mail.example.com, hello.example.com, or goodbye.example.com, but not for example.com.

A wildcard certificate is a certificate that covers one or more names starting with *. and that will be accepted by a web browser for any subdomain name with any label in place of the * character. For example, a certificate for *.example.com will be valid for www.example.com, mail.example.com, hello.example.com, or goodbye.example.com, but not for example.com.

From our Certbot Glossary
wildcard cert
Wildcard Certificate

A wildcard certificate is a certificate that covers one or more names starting with *. and that will be accepted by a web browser for any subdomain name with any label in place of the * character. For example, a certificate for *.example.com will be valid for www.example.com, mail.example.com, hello.example.com, or goodbye.example.com, but not for example.com.

From our Certbot Glossary
:
DNS credentials
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DNS credentials are a password or other kind of secret (such as an API key) that your DNS provider lets you use to change the contents of your DNS records. They are usually issued by your domain registrar (or by another DNS provider, if your DNS provider isn’t the same as your registrar). DNS credentials are a sensitive kind of secret because they can be used to take over your site completely. You should never share these credentials publicly or with an unauthorized person. It can be OK to provide a copy of them to Certbot to let it perform DNS validation automatically, since it runs locally on your machine.

DNS credentials are a password or other kind of secret (such as an API key) that your DNS provider lets you use to change the contents of your DNS records. They are usually issued by your domain registrar (or by another DNS provider, if your DNS provider isn’t the same as your registrar). DNS credentials are a sensitive kind of secret because they can be used to take over your site completely. You should never share these credentials publicly or with an unauthorized person. It can be OK to provide a copy of them to Certbot to let it perform...

From our Certbot Glossary
DNS credentials
DNS Credentials

DNS credentials are a password or other kind of secret (such as an API key) that your DNS provider lets you use to change the contents of your DNS records. They are usually issued by your domain registrar (or by another DNS provider, if your DNS provider isn’t the same as your registrar). DNS credentials are a sensitive kind of secret because they can be used to take over your site completely. You should never share these credentials publicly or with an unauthorized person. It can be OK to provide a copy of them to Certbot to let it perform DNS validation automatically, since it runs locally on your machine.

From our Certbot Glossary

Don't have these requirements?

Not to worry! Some hosting providers automate the HTTPS process. See the full list of hosting providers, or find out more about how to set up your system.

None of the above on RHEL 8

default
wildcard
  1. SSH into the server

    SSH into the server running your HTTP website as a user with sudo privileges.

  2. Install Certbot

    Run these commands on the command line on the machine to install Certbot.

    1. wget https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto
    2. sudo mv certbot-auto /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto
    3. sudo chown root /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto
    4. sudo chmod 0755 /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto

  3. Choose how you'd like to run Certbot

    Are you ok with temporarily stopping your website?

    Yes, my web server is not currently running on this machine.

    Stop your webserver, then run this command to get a certificate. Certbot will temporarily spin up a webserver on your machine.

                      sudo /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto certonly --standalone
                  

    No, I need to keep my web server running.

    If you have a webserver that's already using port 80 and don't want to stop it while Certbot runs, run this command and follow the instructions in the terminal.

                      sudo /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto certonly --webroot
                  

  4. Install your certificate

    You'll need to install your new certificate in the configuration file for your webserver.

  5. Set up automatic renewal

    We recommend running the following line, which will add a cron job to the default crontab.

    echo "0 0,12 * * * root python -c 'import random; import time; time.sleep(random.random() * 3600)' && /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto renew" | sudo tee -a /etc/crontab > /dev/null

    If you needed to stop your webserver to run Certbot, you'll want to add --pre-hook and --post-hook flags after /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto renew to stop and start your webserver automatically. For example, if your webserver is HAProxy, modify the command as follows:

    echo "0 0,12 * * * root python -c 'import random; import time; time.sleep(random.random() * 3600)' && /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto renew --pre-hook 'service haproxy stop' --post-hook 'service haproxy start'" | sudo tee -a /etc/crontab > /dev/null

    More information is available in the Certbot documentation on renewing certificates.

  6. Confirm that Certbot worked

    To confirm that your site is set up properly, visit https://yourwebsite.com/ in your browser and look for the lock icon in the URL bar. If you want to check that you have the top-of-the-line installation, you can head to https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/.

    check your site's https:// at SSL Labs.

  1. SSH into the server

    SSH into the server running your HTTP website as a user with sudo privileges.

  2. Install Certbot

    Run these commands on the command line on the machine to install Certbot.

    1. wget https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto
    2. sudo mv certbot-auto /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto
    3. sudo chown root /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto
    4. sudo chmod 0755 /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto

  3. Get a certificate

    Run one of the commands in the "Examples" section of the instructions for your DNS provider.

  4. Install your certificate

    You'll need to install your new certificate in the configuration file for your webserver.

  5. Set up automatic renewal

    We recommend running the following line, which will add a cron job to the default crontab.

    echo "0 0,12 * * * root python -c 'import random; import time; time.sleep(random.random() * 3600)' && /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto renew" | sudo tee -a /etc/crontab > /dev/null

    If you needed to stop your webserver to run Certbot, you'll want to add --pre-hook and --post-hook flags after /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto renew to stop and start your webserver automatically. For example, if your webserver is HAProxy, modify the command as follows:

    echo "0 0,12 * * * root python -c 'import random; import time; time.sleep(random.random() * 3600)' && /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto renew --pre-hook 'service haproxy stop' --post-hook 'service haproxy start'" | sudo tee -a /etc/crontab > /dev/null

    More information is available in the Certbot documentation on renewing certificates.

  6. Confirm that Certbot worked

    To confirm that your site is set up properly, visit https://yourwebsite.com/ in your browser and look for the lock icon in the URL bar. If you want to check that you have the top-of-the-line installation, you can head to https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/.

    check your site's https:// at SSL Labs.