Source code for certbot.reverter

"""Reverter class saves configuration checkpoints and allows for recovery."""
import csv
import glob
import logging
import os
import shutil
import time
import traceback

import six
import zope.component

from certbot import constants
from certbot import errors
from certbot import interfaces
from certbot import util


logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


[docs]class Reverter(object): """Reverter Class - save and revert configuration checkpoints. This class can be used by the plugins, especially Installers, to undo changes made to the user's system. Modifications to files and commands to do undo actions taken by the plugin should be registered with this class before the action is taken. Once a change has been registered with this class, there are three states the change can be in. First, the change can be a temporary change. This should be used for changes that will soon be reverted, such as config changes for the purpose of solving a challenge. Changes are added to this state through calls to :func:`~add_to_temp_checkpoint` and reverted when :func:`~revert_temporary_config` or :func:`~recovery_routine` is called. The second state a change can be in is in progress. These changes are not temporary, however, they also have not been finalized in a checkpoint. A change must become in progress before it can be finalized. Changes are added to this state through calls to :func:`~add_to_checkpoint` and reverted when :func:`~recovery_routine` is called. The last state a change can be in is finalized in a checkpoint. A change is put into this state by first becoming an in progress change and then calling :func:`~finalize_checkpoint`. Changes in this state can be reverted through calls to :func:`~rollback_checkpoints`. As a final note, creating new files and registering undo commands are handled specially and use the methods :func:`~register_file_creation` and :func:`~register_undo_command` respectively. Both of these methods can be used to create either temporary or in progress changes. .. note:: Consider moving everything over to CSV format. :param config: Configuration. :type config: :class:`certbot.interfaces.IConfig` """ def __init__(self, config): self.config = config util.make_or_verify_dir( config.backup_dir, constants.CONFIG_DIRS_MODE, os.geteuid(), self.config.strict_permissions)
[docs] def revert_temporary_config(self): """Reload users original configuration files after a temporary save. This function should reinstall the users original configuration files for all saves with temporary=True :raises .ReverterError: when unable to revert config """ if os.path.isdir(self.config.temp_checkpoint_dir): try: self._recover_checkpoint(self.config.temp_checkpoint_dir) except errors.ReverterError: # We have a partial or incomplete recovery logger.critical( "Incomplete or failed recovery for %s", self.config.temp_checkpoint_dir, ) raise errors.ReverterError("Unable to revert temporary config")
[docs] def rollback_checkpoints(self, rollback=1): """Revert 'rollback' number of configuration checkpoints. :param int rollback: Number of checkpoints to reverse. A str num will be cast to an integer. So "2" is also acceptable. :raises .ReverterError: if there is a problem with the input or if the function is unable to correctly revert the configuration checkpoints """ try: rollback = int(rollback) except ValueError: logger.error("Rollback argument must be a positive integer") raise errors.ReverterError("Invalid Input") # Sanity check input if rollback < 0: logger.error("Rollback argument must be a positive integer") raise errors.ReverterError("Invalid Input") backups = os.listdir(self.config.backup_dir) backups.sort() if not backups: logger.warning( "Certbot hasn't modified your configuration, so rollback " "isn't available.") elif len(backups) < rollback: logger.warning("Unable to rollback %d checkpoints, only %d exist", rollback, len(backups)) while rollback > 0 and backups: cp_dir = os.path.join(self.config.backup_dir, backups.pop()) try: self._recover_checkpoint(cp_dir) except errors.ReverterError: logger.critical("Failed to load checkpoint during rollback") raise errors.ReverterError( "Unable to load checkpoint during rollback") rollback -= 1
[docs] def view_config_changes(self, for_logging=False, num=None): """Displays all saved checkpoints. All checkpoints are printed by :meth:`certbot.interfaces.IDisplay.notification`. .. todo:: Decide on a policy for error handling, OSError IOError... :raises .errors.ReverterError: If invalid directory structure. """ backups = os.listdir(self.config.backup_dir) backups.sort(reverse=True) if num: backups = backups[:num] if not backups: logger.info("Certbot has not saved backups of your configuration") return # Make sure there isn't anything unexpected in the backup folder # There should only be timestamped (float) directories try: for bkup in backups: float(bkup) except ValueError: raise errors.ReverterError( "Invalid directories in {0}".format(self.config.backup_dir)) output = [] for bkup in backups: output.append(time.ctime(float(bkup))) cur_dir = os.path.join(self.config.backup_dir, bkup) with open(os.path.join(cur_dir, "CHANGES_SINCE")) as changes_fd: output.append(changes_fd.read()) output.append("Affected files:") with open(os.path.join(cur_dir, "FILEPATHS")) as paths_fd: filepaths = paths_fd.read().splitlines() for path in filepaths: output.append(" {0}".format(path)) if os.path.isfile(os.path.join(cur_dir, "NEW_FILES")): with open(os.path.join(cur_dir, "NEW_FILES")) as new_fd: output.append("New Configuration Files:") filepaths = new_fd.read().splitlines() for path in filepaths: output.append(" {0}".format(path)) output.append(os.linesep) if for_logging: return os.linesep.join(output) zope.component.getUtility(interfaces.IDisplay).notification( os.linesep.join(output), force_interactive=True, pause=False)
[docs] def add_to_temp_checkpoint(self, save_files, save_notes): """Add files to temporary checkpoint. :param set save_files: set of filepaths to save :param str save_notes: notes about changes during the save """ self._add_to_checkpoint_dir( self.config.temp_checkpoint_dir, save_files, save_notes)
[docs] def add_to_checkpoint(self, save_files, save_notes): """Add files to a permanent checkpoint. :param set save_files: set of filepaths to save :param str save_notes: notes about changes during the save """ # Check to make sure we are not overwriting a temp file self._check_tempfile_saves(save_files) self._add_to_checkpoint_dir( self.config.in_progress_dir, save_files, save_notes)
[docs] def _add_to_checkpoint_dir(self, cp_dir, save_files, save_notes): """Add save files to checkpoint directory. :param str cp_dir: Checkpoint directory filepath :param set save_files: set of files to save :param str save_notes: notes about changes made during the save :raises IOError: if unable to open cp_dir + FILEPATHS file :raises .ReverterError: if unable to add checkpoint """ util.make_or_verify_dir( cp_dir, constants.CONFIG_DIRS_MODE, os.geteuid(), self.config.strict_permissions) op_fd, existing_filepaths = self._read_and_append( os.path.join(cp_dir, "FILEPATHS")) idx = len(existing_filepaths) for filename in save_files: # No need to copy/index already existing files # The oldest copy already exists in the directory... if filename not in existing_filepaths: # Tag files with index so multiple files can # have the same filename logger.debug("Creating backup of %s", filename) try: shutil.copy2(filename, os.path.join( cp_dir, os.path.basename(filename) + "_" + str(idx))) op_fd.write(filename + os.linesep) # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4726260/effective-use-of-python-shutil-copy2 except IOError: op_fd.close() logger.error( "Unable to add file %s to checkpoint %s", filename, cp_dir) raise errors.ReverterError( "Unable to add file {0} to checkpoint " "{1}".format(filename, cp_dir)) idx += 1 op_fd.close() with open(os.path.join(cp_dir, "CHANGES_SINCE"), "a") as notes_fd: notes_fd.write(save_notes)
[docs] def _read_and_append(self, filepath): # pylint: disable=no-self-use """Reads the file lines and returns a file obj. Read the file returning the lines, and a pointer to the end of the file. """ # Open up filepath differently depending on if it already exists if os.path.isfile(filepath): op_fd = open(filepath, "r+") lines = op_fd.read().splitlines() else: lines = [] op_fd = open(filepath, "w") return op_fd, lines
[docs] def _recover_checkpoint(self, cp_dir): """Recover a specific checkpoint. Recover a specific checkpoint provided by cp_dir Note: this function does not reload augeas. :param str cp_dir: checkpoint directory file path :raises errors.ReverterError: If unable to recover checkpoint """ # Undo all commands if os.path.isfile(os.path.join(cp_dir, "COMMANDS")): self._run_undo_commands(os.path.join(cp_dir, "COMMANDS")) # Revert all changed files if os.path.isfile(os.path.join(cp_dir, "FILEPATHS")): try: with open(os.path.join(cp_dir, "FILEPATHS")) as paths_fd: filepaths = paths_fd.read().splitlines() for idx, path in enumerate(filepaths): shutil.copy2(os.path.join( cp_dir, os.path.basename(path) + "_" + str(idx)), path) except (IOError, OSError): # This file is required in all checkpoints. logger.error("Unable to recover files from %s", cp_dir) raise errors.ReverterError( "Unable to recover files from %s" % cp_dir) # Remove any newly added files if they exist self._remove_contained_files(os.path.join(cp_dir, "NEW_FILES")) try: shutil.rmtree(cp_dir) except OSError: logger.error("Unable to remove directory: %s", cp_dir) raise errors.ReverterError( "Unable to remove directory: %s" % cp_dir)
[docs] def _run_undo_commands(self, filepath): # pylint: disable=no-self-use """Run all commands in a file.""" # NOTE: csv module uses native strings. That is, bytes on Python 2 and # unicode on Python 3 with open(filepath, 'r') as csvfile: csvreader = csv.reader(csvfile) for command in reversed(list(csvreader)): try: util.run_script(command) except errors.SubprocessError: logger.error( "Unable to run undo command: %s", " ".join(command))
[docs] def _check_tempfile_saves(self, save_files): """Verify save isn't overwriting any temporary files. :param set save_files: Set of files about to be saved. :raises certbot.errors.ReverterError: when save is attempting to overwrite a temporary file. """ protected_files = [] # Get temp modified files temp_path = os.path.join(self.config.temp_checkpoint_dir, "FILEPATHS") if os.path.isfile(temp_path): with open(temp_path, "r") as protected_fd: protected_files.extend(protected_fd.read().splitlines()) # Get temp new files new_path = os.path.join(self.config.temp_checkpoint_dir, "NEW_FILES") if os.path.isfile(new_path): with open(new_path, "r") as protected_fd: protected_files.extend(protected_fd.read().splitlines()) # Verify no save_file is in protected_files for filename in protected_files: if filename in save_files: raise errors.ReverterError( "Attempting to overwrite challenge " "file - %s" % filename)
[docs] def register_file_creation(self, temporary, *files): r"""Register the creation of all files during certbot execution. Call this method before writing to the file to make sure that the file will be cleaned up if the program exits unexpectedly. (Before a save occurs) :param bool temporary: If the file creation registry is for a temp or permanent save. :param \*files: file paths (str) to be registered :raises certbot.errors.ReverterError: If call does not contain necessary parameters or if the file creation is unable to be registered. """ # Make sure some files are provided... as this is an error # Made this mistake in my initial implementation of apache.dvsni.py if not files: raise errors.ReverterError("Forgot to provide files to registration call") cp_dir = self._get_cp_dir(temporary) # Append all new files (that aren't already registered) new_fd = None try: new_fd, ex_files = self._read_and_append(os.path.join(cp_dir, "NEW_FILES")) for path in files: if path not in ex_files: new_fd.write("{0}{1}".format(path, os.linesep)) except (IOError, OSError): logger.error("Unable to register file creation(s) - %s", files) raise errors.ReverterError( "Unable to register file creation(s) - {0}".format(files)) finally: if new_fd is not None: new_fd.close()
[docs] def register_undo_command(self, temporary, command): """Register a command to be run to undo actions taken. .. warning:: This function does not enforce order of operations in terms of file modification vs. command registration. All undo commands are run first before all normal files are reverted to their previous state. If you need to maintain strict order, you may create checkpoints before and after the the command registration. This function may be improved in the future based on demand. :param bool temporary: Whether the command should be saved in the IN_PROGRESS or TEMPORARY checkpoints. :param command: Command to be run. :type command: list of str """ commands_fp = os.path.join(self._get_cp_dir(temporary), "COMMANDS") command_file = None try: if os.path.isfile(commands_fp): command_file = open(commands_fp, "a") else: command_file = open(commands_fp, "w") csvwriter = csv.writer(command_file) csvwriter.writerow(command) except (IOError, OSError): logger.error("Unable to register undo command") raise errors.ReverterError( "Unable to register undo command.") finally: if command_file is not None: command_file.close()
[docs] def _get_cp_dir(self, temporary): """Return the proper reverter directory.""" if temporary: cp_dir = self.config.temp_checkpoint_dir else: cp_dir = self.config.in_progress_dir util.make_or_verify_dir( cp_dir, constants.CONFIG_DIRS_MODE, os.geteuid(), self.config.strict_permissions) return cp_dir
[docs] def recovery_routine(self): """Revert configuration to most recent finalized checkpoint. Remove all changes (temporary and permanent) that have not been finalized. This is useful to protect against crashes and other execution interruptions. :raises .errors.ReverterError: If unable to recover the configuration """ # First, any changes found in IConfig.temp_checkpoint_dir are removed, # then IN_PROGRESS changes are removed The order is important. # IN_PROGRESS is unable to add files that are already added by a TEMP # change. Thus TEMP must be rolled back first because that will be the # 'latest' occurrence of the file. self.revert_temporary_config() if os.path.isdir(self.config.in_progress_dir): try: self._recover_checkpoint(self.config.in_progress_dir) except errors.ReverterError: # We have a partial or incomplete recovery logger.critical("Incomplete or failed recovery for IN_PROGRESS " "checkpoint - %s", self.config.in_progress_dir) raise errors.ReverterError( "Incomplete or failed recovery for IN_PROGRESS checkpoint " "- %s" % self.config.in_progress_dir)
[docs] def _remove_contained_files(self, file_list): # pylint: disable=no-self-use """Erase all files contained within file_list. :param str file_list: file containing list of file paths to be deleted :returns: Success :rtype: bool :raises certbot.errors.ReverterError: If all files within file_list cannot be removed """ # Check to see that file exists to differentiate can't find file_list # and can't remove filepaths within file_list errors. if not os.path.isfile(file_list): return False try: with open(file_list, "r") as list_fd: filepaths = list_fd.read().splitlines() for path in filepaths: # Files are registered before they are added... so # check to see if file exists first if os.path.lexists(path): os.remove(path) else: logger.warning( "File: %s - Could not be found to be deleted %s - " "Certbot probably shut down unexpectedly", os.linesep, path) except (IOError, OSError): logger.critical( "Unable to remove filepaths contained within %s", file_list) raise errors.ReverterError( "Unable to remove filepaths contained within " "{0}".format(file_list)) return True
[docs] def finalize_checkpoint(self, title): """Finalize the checkpoint. Timestamps and permanently saves all changes made through the use of :func:`~add_to_checkpoint` and :func:`~register_file_creation` :param str title: Title describing checkpoint :raises certbot.errors.ReverterError: when the checkpoint is not able to be finalized. """ # Check to make sure an "in progress" directory exists if not os.path.isdir(self.config.in_progress_dir): return changes_since_path = os.path.join(self.config.in_progress_dir, "CHANGES_SINCE") changes_since_tmp_path = os.path.join(self.config.in_progress_dir, "CHANGES_SINCE.tmp") if not os.path.exists(changes_since_path): logger.info("Rollback checkpoint is empty (no changes made?)") with open(changes_since_path, 'w') as f: f.write("No changes\n") # Add title to self.config.in_progress_dir CHANGES_SINCE try: with open(changes_since_tmp_path, "w") as changes_tmp: changes_tmp.write("-- %s --\n" % title) with open(changes_since_path, "r") as changes_orig: changes_tmp.write(changes_orig.read()) # Move self.config.in_progress_dir to Backups directory shutil.move(changes_since_tmp_path, changes_since_path) except (IOError, OSError): logger.error("Unable to finalize checkpoint - adding title") logger.debug("Exception was:\n%s", traceback.format_exc()) raise errors.ReverterError("Unable to add title") # rename the directory as a timestamp self._timestamp_progress_dir()
[docs] def _checkpoint_timestamp(self): "Determine the timestamp of the checkpoint, enforcing monotonicity." timestamp = str(time.time()) others = glob.glob(os.path.join(self.config.backup_dir, "[0-9]*")) others = [os.path.basename(d) for d in others] others.append(timestamp) others.sort() if others[-1] != timestamp: timetravel = str(float(others[-1]) + 1) logger.warning("Current timestamp %s does not correspond to newest reverter " "checkpoint; your clock probably jumped. Time travelling to %s", timestamp, timetravel) timestamp = timetravel elif len(others) > 1 and others[-2] == timestamp: # It is possible if the checkpoints are made extremely quickly # that will result in a name collision. logger.debug("Race condition with timestamp %s, incrementing by 0.01", timestamp) timetravel = str(float(others[-1]) + 0.01) timestamp = timetravel return timestamp
[docs] def _timestamp_progress_dir(self): """Timestamp the checkpoint.""" # It is possible save checkpoints faster than 1 per second resulting in # collisions in the naming convention. for _ in six.moves.range(2): timestamp = self._checkpoint_timestamp() final_dir = os.path.join(self.config.backup_dir, timestamp) try: os.rename(self.config.in_progress_dir, final_dir) return except OSError: logger.warning("Extreme, unexpected race condition, retrying (%s)", timestamp) # After 10 attempts... something is probably wrong here... logger.error( "Unable to finalize checkpoint, %s -> %s", self.config.in_progress_dir, final_dir) raise errors.ReverterError( "Unable to finalize checkpoint renaming")